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What is 101 (0x00000065)


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The requester has asked the server to switch protocols and the server has agreed to do so.

The HTTP 101 Switching Protocols response code indicates a protocol to which the server switches. The protocol is specified in the Upgrade request header received from a client.

The server includes in this response an Upgrade response header to indicate the protocol it switched to. The process is described in the following article: Protocol upgrade mechanism.

Protocol upgrade mechanism

The HTTP/1.1 protocol provides a special mechanism that can be used to upgrade an already established connection to a different protocol, using the Upgrade header field.

This mechanism is optional; it cannot be used to insist on a protocol change. Implementations can choose not to take advantage of an upgrade even if they support the new protocol, and in practice, this mechanism is used mostly to bootstrap a WebSockets connection.

Note also that HTTP/2 explicitly disallows the use of this mechanism; it is specific to HTTP/1.1.

Upgrading HTTP/1.1 Connections

The Upgrade header field is used by clients to invite the server to switch to one of the listed protocols, in descending preference order.

Because Upgrade is a hop-by-hop header, it also needs to be listed in the Connection header field. This means that a typical request that includes Upgrade would look something like:

GET /index.html HTTP/1.1
Connection: upgrade
Upgrade: example/1, foo/2

Other headers may be required depending on the requested protocol; for example, WebSocket upgrades allow additional headers to configure details about the WebSocket connection as well as to offer a degree of security in opening the connection. See Upgrading to a WebSocket connection for more details.

If the server decides to upgrade the connection, it sends back a 101 Switching Protocols response status with an Upgrade header that specifies the protocol(s) being switched to. If it does not (or cannot) upgrade the connection, it ignores the Upgrade header and sends back a regular response (for example, a 200 OK).

Right after sending the 101 status code, the server can begin speaking the new protocol, performing any additional protocol-specific handshakes as necessary. Effectively, the connection becomes a two-way pipe as soon as the upgraded response is complete, and the request that initiated the upgrade can be completed over the new protocol.

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