Data structure alignment is the way data is arranged and accessed in computer memory. It consists of three separate but related issues: data alignment, data structure padding, and packing.
The CPU in modern computer hardware performs reads and writes to memory most efficiently when the data is naturally aligned, which generally means that the data's memory address is a multiple of the data size. For instance, in a 32-bit architecture, the data may be aligned if the data is stored in four consecutive bytes and the first byte lies on a 4-byte boundary.
Data alignment is the aligning of elements according to their natural alignment. To ensure natural alignment, it may be necessary to insert some padding between structure elements or after the last element of a structure. For example, on a 32-bit machine, a data structure containing a 16-bit value followed by a 32-bit value could have 16 bits of padding between the 16-bit value and the 32-bit value to align the 32-bit value on a 32-bit boundary. Alternatively, one can pack the structure, omitting the padding, which may lead to slower access, but uses three quarters as much memory.
Although data structure alignment is a fundamental issue for all modern computers, many computer languages and computer language implementations handle data alignment automatically. Fortran, Ada, PL/I, Pascal, certain C and C++ implementations, D, Rust, C#, and assembly language allow at least partial control of data structure padding, which may be useful in certain special circumstances.
About “What is” service
Many of users are faced with the problem of interpreting errors that occur during the work of operating systems. In some cases, the operating system reports that an error has occurred and displays only an integer error code value. Often it is difficult to even roughly understand the cause of the error from the information given out. Our “what is” service contains a database of errors in Windows, Linux, Macos and Solaris operating systems. The database contains tens of thousands of values. In most cases, the online service will be able to help with the definition of the short name of the error and its detailed description.
Current version of service supports following types of error and status codes:
|NTSTATUS||Many kernel-mode standard driver routines and driver support routines use the NTSTATUS type for return values. Additionally, drivers provide an NTSTATUS-typed value in an IRP’s IO_STATUS_BLOCK structure when completing IRPs. The NTSTATUS type is defined in Ntdef.h, and system-supplied status codes are defined in Ntstatus.h.|
|Win32 error||Win32 error codes MUST be in the range 0x0000 to 0xFFFF, although Win32 error codes can be used both in 16-bit fields (such as within the HRESULT type specified in section in this article) as well as 32-bit fields. Most values also have a default message defined, which can be used to map the value to a human-readable text message; when this is done, the Win32 error code is also known as a message identifier.|
|HRESULT||HRESULT is a data type used in Windows operating systems, and the earlier IBM/Microsoft OS/2 operating system, to represent error conditions, and warning conditions.|
The original purpose of HRESULTs was to formally lay out ranges of error codes for both public and Microsoft internal use in order to prevent collisions between error codes in different subsystems of the OS/2 operating system.
HRESULTs are numerical error codes. Various bits within an HRESULT encode information about the nature of the error code, and where it came from.
HRESULT error codes are most commonly encountered in COM programming, where they form the basis for a standardized COM error handling convention.
|HTTP Status Code||Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) response status codes. Status codes are issued by a server in response to a client’s request made to the server. It includes codes from IETF Request for Comments (RFCs), other specifications, and some additional codes used in some common applications of the HTTP. The first digit of the status code specifies one of five standard classes of responses. The message phrases shown are typical, but any human-readable alternative may be provided.|
|errno||Integer value, which is returned by system calls and some library functions in the event of an error to indicate what went wrong. errno is defined by the ISO C standard to be a modifiable lvalue of type int, and must not be explicitly declared; errno may be a macro. errno is thread-local; setting it in one thread does not affect its value in any other thread.|
|Kern Return||Apple Kernel return codes.|
|Ipp Status||The IppStatus constant enumerates the status values returned by the Intel IPP functions, indicating|
whether the operation is error-free.
The service is based on the open source library AllStat. Its sources are available on our git server. We will be grateful for your participation in the finalization of the library and ideas for the development of the service. You can also download ErrorLookup utility and libraries from our site.